What is reverse engineering?
Reverse engineering allows the duplication of an existing product, without having the plans, documents or technical details of the product.
In a classical production procedure, the creator creates a detailed plan, in which the production properties of a product are explained. After that, the product goes into production and is built according to that plan.
Reverse engineering follows a reversed method. First, engineers identify the components of a system, as well as finding out how they all relate to one another in order for the system to work. The object is decomposed to ascertain the inner structure, the function of all parts and the way they operate. The making of a duplicate comprises of discovering the physical dimensions, the functionalities and the material qualities of an object.
After that, the moment has arrived to construct a representation of the system analysis with the aid of a computer. The next final entails the reproduction of the original system with extreme accuracy, following the previously laid out plan.
Why do we need reverse engineering?
This is a classical scenario in which reverse engineering is warranted: A company has a machine, but one of the components has broken down, so it needs to be replaced. However, the manufacturer has ceased production of that machine and all of its parts; they don’t supply spare pieces anymore. The owner of the machine can set up a procedure of reverse engineering of the broken piece, rather than having to buy a new machine.
Reverse engineering allows for shorter delays in product development, because this method can rapidly deliver a replacement for a faulty piece, that can be used in a prototype as equipment or in the production process.
However, reverse engineering has a whole array of uses:
How are objects measured in a reverse engineering procedure?
To recreate an object, you have to ascertain the physical dimensions precisely. If you don’t have extremely accurate object measurements, it is possible that the recreated object won’t work because it is not an exact copy of the original.
It is possible to make these very precise measurements manually, with the help of a marking gauge, a micrometre, or other instruments of that type. In modern reverse engineering however, a tridimensional measuring machine is able to determine the geometrics of an object faster and more accurately than any manual measuring device is capable of.
A tridimensional measuring machine measures on three axels, X, Y and Z, and uses a coordinated system in three dimensions. Every axel has a basis, which determines the position of a point on that axel.
Tridimensional measuring machines use feelers to register a point as soon as the instrument comes in contact with the surface of the object that needs to be measured. Each point is measured individually, until the tridimensional measuring machine has collected enough data to allow the software to determine the length, angles and other geometric information of the object. The machine reads the data that enters through the feelers in function of the instructions that the operator has provided. The XYZ-coordinates of each point are then used to ascertain the size and position. A tridimensional measuring machine can measure the dimensions in two different ways: on the hand through direct contact with the object, on the other hand with the help of a laser scanner. The cloud of gathered points is then converted to recreate the surface of the object. This data print is then sent to a computer programme in order for it to be refined, analysed and expanded.
A solution for the digitalisation of a high resolution Arm for reverse engineering: the Design ScanArm combined with Geomagic software.
In order to answer to the needs of the market while designing a product, FARO has developed the Design ScanArm, a new measuring arm combined with a 3D scanner. This innovation is a digital, portable 3D solution made for 3D modelling in designing and the entire managing process, which lasts for the entire product life span.
The FARO Design ScanArm uses modern blue laser technology with an increased digitalisation speed in order to obtain point clouds with a high resolution and to be able to digitalise existing materials without problems, without having to use sprays and other such materials. The apparatus is very light and easy to move, so it can be placed in a lab or study room with ease. The Design ScanArm has a simplified user interface which allows for an easy use, even for users with limited experience or competence in 3D digitalisation.
Due to the combination of the FARO 3D digitalisation and the possibilities of the modelling software by Geomagic, the Design ScanArm offers a key solution that allows its users to digitalise, recreate and modify existing models or test prototypes quickly and with ease. This solution enables users to quickly transfer digitalised data to computer models, that can still be modified. Once the data is received, you can use the modelling functions in different ways, without having to use any other application.
Reverse engineering is an important discipline that can contribute immensely to the life span of machines by enabling the proprietor of the machine to manufacture spare parts at will, even when these are not in production anymore. Reverse engineering also allows for new pieces to be added, to add additional functions or to eliminate errors.
The simplest, fastest, and easiest-to-use tool to measure and create products in the context of a recreating procedure, is a light-weight, portable tridimensional measuring machine. This tool allows you to measure objects with or without contact. The combination of these advantages that the FARO Design ScanArm offers, gives operators a fast and efficient solution in the present work environment and gives them a competitive advantage.
FARO is expanding the possibilities of 3D laser scanning with a range of innovations. There is a clear trend towards making point clouds the focus of documentation applications.
Scanning on-site and immediately having a registered point cloud available on a mobile device – this has been a long-time dream of 3D laser scanning experts. Instead, one hour’s work in the field always meant several hours of office work to turn the scan data into usable data products. FARO Europe GmbH is now offering the possibility of registration in the field. Thanks to the new FARO® Scan Localizer, it is now possible to register scans on-site and in real time and thus generate a point cloud using equipment in the field. This add-on product is integrated into the Laser Scanner Focus3D tripod. It constantly performs 2D scans while also surveying the measuring environment within a horizontal profile covering approximately 180 degrees. It has a measuring range of up to 20 metres. The end result is a type of reference profile, which can be used to register the relevant scans from different locations within a single point cloud. This is all thanks to the cloud-to-cloud registration process, which has been a feature in SCENE for around two years. “It means that there is no longer any need for reference registration marks for overlapping areas in interior spaces,” says Oliver Bürkler, Director of Product Management at FARO. The intention is primarily to boost efficiency for projects with a high number of individual images. “We assume that it will generate significant cost advantages where there are 15 or more scans. For example, the device is absolutely indispensable when measuring interior spaces, where you often take more than a hundred scans,” Bürkler adds. According to the company, the FARO Scan Localizer is available as an add-on to the FARO Laser Scanner Focus3D (2015 model or later) and costs around 15,000 euros.
The FARO Scan Localizer is affixed to the tripod. It carries out a horizontal 180-degree measurement that enables real-time positioning in interior spaces.
FARO has launched a number of innovations onto the market to further improve 3D laser scanning. This includes integrating high-dynamic-range (HDR) photography into the FARO Laser Scanner Focus3D. This new option lets you increase the resolution for images with significant differences in brightness. The HDR camera in the Focus3D X 130 HDR and 330 HDR models deliver 170 megapixels and offer a contrast range of up to 4 billion-to-1, which means that the respective bright areas can be optimally rendered for the human eye (i.e. for the screen). Bürkler describes a practical example: “Customers working in dark spaces, e.g. pipeline construction, can decipher even small labels, which are usually very light, in the point cloud”.
Closer to reality
A first glance at the new Version 6 of FARO’s point cloud software SCENE makes it very clear that it represents a new master release. The entire user interface has been redesigned and is now heavily based on typical workflows. Making the software easy and efficient to use was key. The work steps within the workflows are divided into clear, individual steps and are arranged in a logical sequence. All of the individual functions available in the previous version are now listed as processing options for the relevant processing steps in projects. The aim is to help users, especially those without extensive prior experience to get to grips with the system easier and faster. “When we developed the workflow-based tools, we defined typical use cases and automated them completely,” says Bürkler. In the event that manual intervention is needed, the software provides appropriate support and guidance. “This keeps the training required to an absolute minimum, which means that the learning time for new users is extremely short,” the product manager said. If anyone prefers the old interface for example, for dealing with complex, engineering-related technical issues they can easily switch back to the previous GUI.
Users will also find new rendering technology in SCENE 6 interesting. It delivers an even better level of visualisation for solid surfaces and eliminates the need for further data processing in visualisation applications.
“Solid surfaces now look completely realistic,” explains Bürkler. Conventional point cloud visuals have been transformed into fully immersive virtual reality environment. For example several new features ensure that the point cloud density for walls is interpolated so that the original, roughly rendered (“holey”) point clouds are automatically converted into closed surfaces. Colours are also homogenised in this way so that solid bodies or textures become significantly more realistic. This means that solid surfaces are not visualised using individual measuring points but rather as realistic, closed objects.
New rendering features in the latest Version 6 of SCENE come in the form of closed surfaces: measuring points are turned into solid bodies to optimise the visualisation.
Ever more in the cloud
FARO insists that the benefits of this type of hyper-realistic point cloud are not just reserved for experts, thanks to the new version of its web hosting service SCENE WebShare Cloud. Being an online service it delivers significantly better performance, as well as being simpler and more user-friendly. All team members can now access documentation data quickly and easily without needing any special software or hardware. Each file is coded individually using the best encryption method available today (AEC 256), which guarantees the highest levels of IT security. In recent years, many customers have been sceptical about cloud applications for security reasons or have rejected them out of hand due to the massive volumes of data involved and the lack of fluid rendering. Nevertheless FARO confirmed that more and more customers are now using the cloud.
Consequently point clouds can be used for documentation-related tasks that were previously the reserve of CAD software. The advantage given that point clouds map complex local conditions, customers can dive into an existing environment ‘virtually’ for a more direct understanding of conditions on the ground. These features are used for example, by key FARO customers such as carmaker Volvo which documents all of its production facilities around the world using FARO scanners and uses these as the basis for further planning or new buildings. The company aims to have point clouds serve as the basis for all documentation applications leaving CAD for the virtual planning level only. This approach represents a paradigm shift since common practice today is still to translate point clouds into CAD models. A point cloud can now be enhanced with CAD functions to create a comprehensive 3D documentation IT landscape. “This will be the basis for future FARO developments,” predicts Oliver Bürkler.
The Casino in Sinaia, Romania was built at the initiative of King Carol I of Romania between 1912-1913. The Sinaia Casino was designed by the famous Romanian architect Petre Antonescu. The building is considered a historic monument and serves as an International Conference Centre. A detailed examination of the site’s current condition was required in order to lay down the restoration and preservation project. Therefore the 3D laser scanning method was chosen in order to carry out the survey of the monument. “Our task was to create a complete Building Information Management system in 2D (ground plans) and 3D (point cloud data) as soon as possible, so that planning and construction work will be based on reliable information. To do this, we deployed two expert teams.
One team was on site scanning with a FARO Focus3D laser scanner while the other team was processing the point cloud data” explains CEO International Partner Buro, Dipl. Ing. Marian Radoi.
“For complex projects as this the Focus3D offers many advantages. It is a non-invasive method of data collection, appropriate in case of surveying historic buildings. The large amount of data, obtained in a very short time, allows for the analysis of the current state of a monument. The great amount of captured details allows planning preservation and rehabilitation works, as well as monitoring the intervention in time.” says Dipl. Ing. Marian Radoi.
Panasonic operates an advanced testing facility that performs precise emission measurement tests across a range of products including TV, IT, video, microwave and medical products. To establish self-regulated quality assurance processes in each group company, Panasonic published Quality Management System Development Guidelines in 2004. Each group company then implemented the Panasonic Quality Management System (P-QMS). P-QMS complement the requirements of the ISO9001 standard with Panasonic’s own quality assurance methods and experience to create a quality management system that aims to deliver the level of quality that the company demands. Panasonic Manufacturing UK’s stringent quality standards, diverse nature and size of the products that are both developed and produced on site, requires the use of a wide range of relatively dedicated measuring instruments……
A new special of the BBC One show Pompeii: New Secrets Revealed with Mary Beard has helped uncover some myteries in Pompeii. This is one of the most iconic archaeological sites and with the use of the FARO Laser Scanner Focus3D unearthed the human stories behind the casts hidden underground. The presenter of the show Mary Beard is a passionate TV historian who wanted to find out the truth the bodies underneath the ashes. This ancient city was destroyed by volcanic ash and pumice during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. Researchers were able to examine in detail the remains of bodies to find out more about how these people lived their lives thousands of years ago.
The precise yet simple laser scanner is especially suited to the outdoors due to its small size and lightweight capabilities. The FARO Focus3D Laser scanner was able to perform the most detailed scan of the archaeological site and was shown on the BBC One show for the world to see. The Focus3D can create a precise, virtual copy of the scanned objects at millimetre accuracies in only minutes by capturing up to 976,000 data points per second. Estelle Lazer from the University of Sydney was able along with her team to help Mary unpick the remains which are preserved in Pompeii.
Previously a bank, now a large restaurant of 720 metres, with a capacity of 140 seats: the construction of Studio 16, which opened its doors in Orléans in the
Autumn of 2015, represented a huge challenge in terms of construction, development of the space and decoration.
MB Design, a firm specializing in interior architecture, was charged with the creation and the realisation of this new concept, and monitored the progress of the building work closely, over a period of 8 months. “We had decided to carry out surveys using a FARO Focus3D X 130 scanner as the work progressed. In doing so, we were able to ensure a real and precise indication of the position of all elements of the site that would end up being hidden by various partitions and covers. The objective was to know exactly where the pipes and cables lay, which would turn out to be very useful later, for example when making an alteration, or if a problem were to occur in one of the hidden installations (a blocked pipe or a leak, for example),” said Michael Bustillo, Director of MB Design and sister company ABM2 (which specialises in surveys).
Like any establishment open to the public, the restaurant had to comply with building regulations before being allowed to open. A problem comes to light at this point: the facilities are 4 cm above the permitted height. Who is to blame? The plumber says he worked with the reference line, i.e. the horizontal level line marked on the wall by the bricklayer. The surveys obtained by ABM2 quickly prove otherwise: the resolution of the FARO Focus3D scanner is such that the bricklayer’s line is clearly visible. This simple fact has farreaching consequences: “Firstly, we have not lost time discussing whether the bricklayer or the plumber was right. Then we saved money because to trace a possible line level would have required breaking tiles which had been laid on top of it. Finally, there is no dispute to be resolved: the plumber being wrong, the removal of the fittings and their reinstallation at the right height becomes his problem,” explains Michael Bustillo. In playing the role of “justice of the peace”, the scanner saved a great deal of time and the establishment was able to open on schedule.
It’s that time of the year again! FARO will be attending the UK’s premier manufacturing technologies exhibition, MACH 2016. This event runs every 2 years.
With a 7 days left until the exhibition check out the 4 reasons to be at the FARO stand booth 5910.
FARO Robo Imager- The first mobile, ready to work 3D measurement solution will be on show at the MACH Fair. A mobile and flexible robot with a setup time of less than 5 minutes, it is seen as a product with great benefits for the automotive, aerospace and mechanical engineering industry.
FARO experts on hand to help – The wonderful expert team will be on hand to help you out with any queries you may have. You will be provided with the opportunity to see live demonstrations from a wide range of products from Metrology & 3D Documentation.
Great Quality stands – There will be a wide range of innovative products from many different exhibitors. FARO will be exhibiting a wide range of products from Metrology and 3D Documentation. This will include the newly highly-adaptable FARO Factory Array 3D Imager, a metrology grade non-contact scanner which utilizes blue light technology to capture millions of high resolution 3D coordinate measurements in seconds. We will also be presenting the high speed FARO Laser Scanner Focus3D X Series for detailed 3D modelling and image documentation as well as the recently released 3D Laser Scanner Freestyle3D X with enhanced accuracy of 1 millimetre at a 1-metre range.
Raffle Prize – Test your knowledge of the FARO Factory Array 3D Imager and your in with a chance to win a prize. Test your knowledge of our new scanner metrological level FARO 3D Imager Array Cobalt for the production workshop and assembly . Come to stand booth 5910 and take our quiz and return your completed ballot in the ballot box at the FARO booth. You can also download the quiz here.
You will be able to find the answers on our FARO Factory Array Imager information page.
Don’t forget stand booth 5910
Ghost town on rough sea
Impressively looking Seal Elephants basking in the sunshine with the crew
The South Georgia Island is located in the Southern Atlantic Ocean. At the begining of the 20th Century, this Island had six whaling stations which made it biggest in the Southern Hemisphere. After the destruction of most of the whaling stations during World War II, the station ceased operating in 1965. The slowly decaying buildings in the area are the last pieces of evidence of the past industrial whaling heritage. However the remoteness of the location and major costs needed to renovate the station means that the entire site has been left to fall down. For this reason, the entire faciliy has been exactly surveyed and documented.
To do so, the Geometria Heritage Management Group was involved in the adrenaline fuelled project involving Elephant seals, asbestos contained ruins and strong snow storms. All six stations have been captured with the help of the FARO Focus3D including storage, piers, barracks and accommodation facilities as well as the surrounding area (the Island cemetery and the former hospital).
Working conditions were anything but ordinary. Nowadays the South Georgia Island is practically uninhabited and serves only as a research station. A five day ship tour around the Falkland Island was required to bring the team on-site. Due to the abestos contamination of the facilities, the team had to wear protective clothing at all times.
At 8 am the research crew struck off with temperatures at -10° from the base camp, with the “Pharos SG” and used a a small speed boat to head to Leith Harbour. As well as the stormy weather conditions, the Island is highly populated with Seals and Elephant seals making scanning work even more difficult. Nonetheless, Geometria generated from 30 to 80 Scans per day with the Focus3D and disposed of more than 2700 Scans after one and a half months. The FARO Focus3D managed to precisely document outdoor facilities and the inside area of the whaling station.
After data processing, specialitsts converted the raw data into CAD drawings and 3D CAD models. This data is freely available for scientists as well as all interested researchers who have been using this for interesting projects.
The journey to the whaling station was difficult at times due to the weather conditions
Few internal areas were well-preserved
The high asbestos contamination makes protective clothing an absolute must-have
The FARO Factory Array 3D Imager is a metrology-grade, non-contact scanner, which utilizes blue light technology to capture millions of high-resolution 3D coordinate measurements in seconds.
Ideal for the production environment and easily deployed within manual or automated manufacturing workflows, Array Imager delivers fast and consistent measurements, independent of the operator, for quality inspection and reverse engineering applications on parts, assemblies, and tools.
Cobalt’s versatility supports a variety of deployment options including rotary stage, industrial robot inspection cells and multiple imager arrays.
Technical key features that support challenging applications include, among other, the following:
> Multiple Imager Arrays: Expand field of view with flexible configurations of multiple Array units operating simultaneously
> On-Board Processing: Delivers fast, reliable performance and ease of integration
> Stereo Cameras: Enable high accuracy, stability and self-monitoring
> Enhanced Stereo Mode: Maximizes coverage area in each scan and shortens inspection time
> Interchangeable Lenses: Provide flexibility for multiple fields of view
The most significant benefits of the new FARO Factory Array 3D Imager:
> Increase productivity by automating measurement workflows
> Multiply productivity with multiple imager arrays
> Real-time 3D data for statistical process control (SPC)
> Measurement accuracy ensured by self-monitoring
> Easy to configure and integrate
> Easy set-up and transport
Do you want to learn more about the FARO Factory Array 3D Imager?
Please click here for more information or contact us by phone 00800-3276-7253
During the next few weeks, we will post more details about the key features of the new FARO Factory Array 3D Imager!